In a CAS, the parts of the system are massively entangled, such that changes in one part of the system bring about similar changes in other parts. Growth and development of one part of the system are dependent on the growth and development of other parts of the system. This is the essence of co-evolution in human systems.

People learn together and from each other, as they adapt to interpersonal and environmental conditions of the system. They self-organize, resulting in all parts being changed in ways that move the system toward greater ’’’coherence’’’ internally and between its internal and external environments. When a system is unable to coevolve, it experiences turbulence and conflict as it attempts to resolve and/or negotiate across emergent differences.

A simple matrix model (image attached) can help track and troubleshoot co-evolutionary relationships.